The widespread practice of out field teaching weakens your relationship

the widespread practice of out field teaching weakens your relationship

Sense Publishers is an international academic publishing house. Read more about: Out-of-Field Teaching Practices. Specifically, compared with before the field teaching practice, intrinsic value identity Teachers' professional identity has a widespread effect on a teachers' teaching In view of the close relationship between identity and profession, Tickle .. Six out of the 12 participants spoke about how the students in their classes had. Mathematics Instructional Practices, and Student Mathematics Achievement . no significant relationship between teachers' mathematics anxiety and changes in achievement remains unclear, although experts in the field (Aiken, ; Chavez & . Working out math equations on the board in front of a class of students.

Some participants were deeply moved by the mentors.

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He designed the course based on his ideas and creativity, activated the students and created a learning atmosphere in the classroom to make students more motivated to learn. This finding confirmed the opposite side of the importance of a mentor. Additionally, the current study also analyzed the importance of students at field school. Six out of the 12 participants spoke about how the students in their classes had deeply influenced them. A student took off his shirt to wipe it clean for me.

I was so touched by that. Specifically, there were two categories in this domain: Of the 12 participants, 8 evaluated their emotions toward the teaching profession at the end of their internship. Most participants noted that the internship strengthened their beliefs in having a teaching profession.

After the internship, when I started to understand the ramifications, environment, and condition of a teaching job, my thinking on teaching in school became stronger and has not changed since then.

Discussion The present study used a mixed qualitative and quantitative approach. The results of qualitative research indicated that pre-service teachers had a new understanding of the contents and characteristics of teaching work.

These new features, communication with students, creativity of teaching, etc. There were both similarities and differences in results between the present study and the study of Hong Hong analyzed the differences in the emotion dimension of professional identity between pre-service teachers experiencing the internship and those not experiencing the internship.

The results indicated that pre-service teachers who had not experienced the internship were obviously too optimistic and underestimated the effect of educational situation on emotion; pre-service teachers who had experienced the internship had less idealized concepts.

However, inconsistent with the results of Hongthe results of her cross-sectional study showed that there were no significant differences in the value dimension of professional identity between pre-service teachers who had not experienced student teaching and pre-service teachers who had experienced student teaching.

This inconsistency may be related to different approaches; the present study used longitudinal design and excluded generational differences effectively.

the widespread practice of out field teaching weakens your relationship

Furthermore, the inconsistent results also related to different samples, different measuring tools, and different internship modes. In the current study, the cognition and evaluation of work contents and features reflected the intrinsic value of the teaching profession, whereas the cognition and evaluation of income, social status, and work environment reflected the extrinsic value of the teaching profession.

Intrinsic value identity was strengthened whereas extrinsic value identity was kept steady relatively, even somewhat weakened in a certain sub-category throughout the internship.

This result indicated that the interior of professional identity had a conflict change. The overall professional identity was positive and increasing, but it was likely to go through more inner tension after experiencing internship. Festinger proposed the approach-avoidance conflict characteristics of volitional behavior according to cognitive dissonance theory. Pre-service teachers might improve their extrinsic value identity to help them integrate into the teaching profession completely or they might reduce their intrinsic value identity and then leave the teaching profession.

Additionally, the results also meant that it is important to enhance the design and plan of the internship. During field teaching practice, if pre-service teachers are provided multiple tasks and contents, they will have a chance to experience fully and deeply the kinds of characteristics of the teaching job that will have great significance for the development of professional identity, especially for cultivating and promoting their intrinsic value identity.

Certainly, multiple and abundant tasks in the internship are closely related to the supports of the important others e. The results were supported by some studies. Izadinia conducted a study by interviewing seven pre-service teachers and mentors. Specifically, when the mentoring relationship was more positive, the pre-service teachers felt more confident as teachers and their professional identities were higher, whereas, their professional identity and confidence both declined when the mentoring relationship was negative.

Stufflebeam emphasized the importance of mentor support and proposed that these supports also influenced teaching efficacy, professional orientation, and professional commitment, which was proved by Schepens et al.

The three variables were the components of professional identity. The interactions of new teachers with students deeply influenced their teaching perspective, self-confidence, and work satisfaction Bullough, In conclusion, this result revealed that the supports of the mentor were important.

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The sources of supports are not limited to the mentors but also include the entire teacher community, such as school leaders, teaching assistants, students, and parents of students Avalos and Aylwin, Williams emphasized that there were abundant social practices and social relationships in field teaching practice, which was important not only to form professional identities but also to make a successful career transition.

Providing supports for pre-service teachers, including providing guidance in the initial teaching jobs for novice teachers, adapting school culture, communicating the class plan to expert teachers, etc. These supportive strategies should be adopted by every school. According to previous definitions of professional commitment in studies e. Professional commitment has a direct and important effect on individual professional decision in the future.

The initial commitment to teaching was an important predictor of teacher leaving his job in the earlier stage of professional development Rots et al. Professional commitment would play an important role between these factors and career decision-making. For example, results from primary and middle school teachers in Netherlands indicated that affective commitment mediated the relationships between classroom self-efficacy and responsibility to remain in teaching, between change in level of motivation and responsibility to remain, between relationship satisfaction and responsibility to remain in a structural model Canrinus et al.

Certainly, the influencing mechanism was based on the case interview, and the result will need to be tested by a quantitative study in the future. Meanwhile, the results provided evidence for distinguishing between professional identity and professional commitment. Professional identity referred to the fact that individuals made judgments or evaluations on different characteristics of profession, while professional commitment mainly focused on professional affection, including aspiration of remaining in the current job and the degree of enjoyment of the job Blau, The two concepts focused on different psychological components, were different in the emergence and formation period, and embodied different developmental stage of professional attitude.

Mentor supports in field school were important factors. The results of the present study have several important implications for promoting teacher education programs, and especially for improving the effectiveness of field teaching practice. The ways of support should be diversified. Third, as an essential part of teacher education, internship should be expanded throughout all years in college. This is particularly important in teacher education in China.

the widespread practice of out field teaching weakens your relationship

The internship is assigned in the last year of teacher education and continues for 3 months. Additionally, the extrinsic values of the teaching profession need to be further improved. The government and educational administration should formulate relevant educational policies and further improve the extrinsic values of the teaching profession.

Limitations and Future Directions There are several limitations regarding this study that must be noted. The first limitation is the loss of the sample in the longitudinal study. The present study chose twelve participants for the research, and the sample size met the criterion mentioned. The data from the eighth to the twelfth participant could not form a new category code.

This finding supported that twelve participants was an appropriate sampling number for this study. Data Collection and Analysis Quantitative Data: The participants were required to complete a questionnaire repeatedly before and after the internship.

The scale consisted of 10 items, for which students responded on a 6-point Likert self-report scale ranging from 1 strongly disagree to 6 strongly agree. Two dimensions were contained in the scale: The internal consistency reliabilities of the whole scale and the dimensions range from 0.

The scale also has good validity.

Out-of-Field Teaching Practices - What Educational Leaders Need to Know - SensePublishers

The results of confirmatory factor analysis showed that the two-factor model fit the data adequately: In this study, the reliability of the scale was acceptable. Semi-structured Interview The interviews were semi-structured and were administered by the chief researcher with assistance from other researchers.

Participants were selected based on the representativeness of the sample and then contacted by the researcher. After the participants were invited to the lab, they were first asked to read and sign an informed consent form that described the purpose, safety, and privacy protection policy of the research and the recording notification.

Each participant was interviewed once, the time of interview lasted 30 min, the interview was conducted one on one and recorded, on completion, the participants were thanked and given a gift. The interviews involved structured questions and follow-up questions. Each participant was asked to answer the same questions, and specific questions or follow-up questions were added according to the initial answers.

The interview protocol had three parts. What did these changes include? Third, an open-ended interview was designed, and participants were asked to discuss the influence of these changes in professional identity on their future career development.

Audio recordings of the interviews were transcribed by the research team and then were checked carefully by non-team members to ensure accuracy. For data analysis, we adopted the consensual qualitative research CQR method Miles and Huberman, The CQR method consists of domain coding, core idea coding, cross-case analysis, stability check, and audits. The key of the CQR method is a thorough team discussion of the transcribed data to reach an agreement on the conceptualization of the data.

Our specific procedure was as follows: Second, core ideas were extracted from each domain based on the interview contents and then examined in the context of each interview to ensure they indeed represented and covered related points of view. Third, categories and sub-categories were identified. Team members collected all of the core ideas from each domain for a cross-case analysis, found the common topics, clustered these topics to form categories and sub-categories, and then formed conclusions.

In the CQR method, coding group members conducted the main analysis independently. All members needed to reach an agreement through consultations during the coding process. Finally, the coding results were submitted to external auditors.

The external auditor re-examined the analysis and provided feedback to the coding group to refine the coding. Results The Changes in Professional Identity: Table 2 showed mean, standard deviation, minimum and maximum, on each sub-dimension and overall construct. The results indicated that the overall professional identity increased, intrinsic value identity increased, and extrinsic value identity kept steady.

the widespread practice of out field teaching weakens your relationship

Specifically, pre-service teachers with higher professional identity tended to think teaching is more valuable, more attractive, more interesting, and think communication with students is more meaningful. Meanwhile, extrinsic value identity, such as work environment and condition, social status, did not significant change. In summary, compared with the professional identity before the internship, the overall professional identity and intrinsic value identity increased, and extrinsic value identity kept steady after the internship.

Why did intrinsic value identity and the overall professional identity increased after internship? To answer the above questions, a qualitative study was conducted. The Changes, Factors, and Roles of Identity: Table 3 displayed domains, categories and sub-categories, representativeness of each category, and examples of the core ideas. According to Miles and Hubermaneach domain and category was identified by the frequency of usage.

The results of the qualitative research: Specifically, there were two categories in this domain as follows: There were five sub-categories in the two categories. Intrinsic value identity consisted of work contents and work characteristics, and extrinsic value identity consisted of work environment, income, and social status. The five sub-categories are representative: All 12 participants had a cognitive change in work content before and after their internships.

The original sentences of some participants are cited here, as follows: I thought that the teachers only taught and managed the class. Through the internship, I learned that teachers also have to work on tasks that the school assigns to them. Eleven participants spoke about a re-acquaintance with the characteristics of the teaching profession.

The Factors of Identity In the second domain under the effect domain—the factors of identity—one general category mentor at the field school and one variant category students at the field school were extracted.

As for the impact of mentor support on professional identity, all participants emphasized the important roles mentors and other teachers played in the field school. The original interview discourses are cited here as follows: Some participants were deeply moved by the mentors. He designed the course based on his ideas and creativity, activated the students and created a learning atmosphere in the classroom to make students more motivated to learn.

This finding confirmed the opposite side of the importance of a mentor. Additionally, the current study also analyzed the importance of students at field school. Six out of the 12 participants spoke about how the students in their classes had deeply influenced them.

A student took off his shirt to wipe it clean for me. I was so touched by that. Specifically, there were two categories in this domain: Of the 12 participants, 8 evaluated their emotions toward the teaching profession at the end of their internship.

Most participants noted that the internship strengthened their beliefs in having a teaching profession. After the internship, when I started to understand the ramifications, environment, and condition of a teaching job, my thinking on teaching in school became stronger and has not changed since then.

Discussion The present study used a mixed qualitative and quantitative approach. The results of qualitative research indicated that pre-service teachers had a new understanding of the contents and characteristics of teaching work.

These new features, communication with students, creativity of teaching, etc. There were both similarities and differences in results between the present study and the study of Hong Hong analyzed the differences in the emotion dimension of professional identity between pre-service teachers experiencing the internship and those not experiencing the internship.

The results indicated that pre-service teachers who had not experienced the internship were obviously too optimistic and underestimated the effect of educational situation on emotion; pre-service teachers who had experienced the internship had less idealized concepts. However, inconsistent with the results of Hongthe results of her cross-sectional study showed that there were no significant differences in the value dimension of professional identity between pre-service teachers who had not experienced student teaching and pre-service teachers who had experienced student teaching.

This inconsistency may be related to different approaches; the present study used longitudinal design and excluded generational differences effectively. Furthermore, the inconsistent results also related to different samples, different measuring tools, and different internship modes.

In the current study, the cognition and evaluation of work contents and features reflected the intrinsic value of the teaching profession, whereas the cognition and evaluation of income, social status, and work environment reflected the extrinsic value of the teaching profession.

Intrinsic value identity was strengthened whereas extrinsic value identity was kept steady relatively, even somewhat weakened in a certain sub-category throughout the internship. This result indicated that the interior of professional identity had a conflict change.

The overall professional identity was positive and increasing, but it was likely to go through more inner tension after experiencing internship. Festinger proposed the approach-avoidance conflict characteristics of volitional behavior according to cognitive dissonance theory. Pre-service teachers might improve their extrinsic value identity to help them integrate into the teaching profession completely or they might reduce their intrinsic value identity and then leave the teaching profession.