Intraspecific competition is an interaction in population ecology, whereby members of the same .. Minimum viable population · Neutral theory · Occupancy–abundance relationship · Population viability analysis · Priority effect · Rapoport's rule. Posts about intraspecific relations written by Mireia Querol Rovira. Intraspecific competition is often more intense than its interspecific form, .. species in North America suggested an inverse relation between T. piniperda brood.
For example, different populations of the northern slimy salamander Plethodon glutinosus have evolved varying levels of aggression depending on the intensity of intraspecific competition. In populations where the resources are scarcer, more aggressive behaviours are likely to evolve.
It is a more effective strategy to fight rivals within the species harder instead of searching for other options due to the lack of available food. In addition, a study on Chilean flamingos Phoenicopterus chilensis found that birds in a bond were much more aggressive than single birds.
The paired birds were significantly more likely to start an agonistic encounter in defense of their mate or young whereas single birds were typically non-breeding and less likely to fight. Mates are a fiercely contested resource in many species as the production of offspring is essential for an individual to propagate its genes.
Indirect[ edit ] Organisms can compete indirectly, either via exploitative or apparent competition. Exploitative competition involves individuals depleting a shared resource and both suffering a loss in fitness as a result.
The organisms may not actually come into contact and only interact via the shared resource indirectly. For instance, exploitative competition has been shown experimentally between juvenile wolf spiders Schizocosa ocreata. Both increasing the density of young spiders and reducing the available food supply lowered the growth of individual spiders. Food is clearly a limiting resource for the wolf spiders but there was no direct competition between juveniles for food, just a reduction in fitness due to the increased population density.
This is also seen in Viviparous lizardor Lacerta vivipara, where the existence of color morphs within a population depends on the density and intraspecific competition.
In stationary organisms, such as plants, exploitative competition plays a much larger role than interference competition because individuals are rooted to a specific area and utilise resources in their immediate surroundings.
Saplings will compete for light, most of which will be blocked and utilised by taller trees. Seeds that germinate in close proximity to the parents are very likely to be out-competed and die. Apparent competition occurs in populations that are predated upon.
An increase in population of the prey species will bring more predators to the area, which increases the risk of an individual being eaten and hence lowers its survivorship. Apparent competition is generally associated with inter rather than intraspecific competition, whereby two different species share a common predator.
An adaptation that makes one species less likely to be eaten results in a reduction in fitness for the other prey species because the predator species hunts more intensely as food has become more difficult to obtain.
Intraspecific competition - Wikipedia
For example, native skinks Oligosoma in New Zealand suffered a large decline in population after the introduction of rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus. Contest[ edit ] Contest competition takes place when a resource is associated with a territory or hierarchical structure within the population.
In the case of Ctenophorus pictus lizards, males compete for territory.
Among the polymorphic variants, red lizards have are more aggressive in defending their territory compared to their yellow counterparts. Note that these are species-specific traits, and species populations, individuals do not switch back-and-forth between them.
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With characteristics typical of the rising portion of the logistic curve, these species allocate more energy to reproduction and less to growth and maintenance. Typically, they exhibit rapid development and early maturity. Most only reproduce one time and produce a large number of offspring to make up for the large number of offspring which die. In animals, there is minimal, if any, parental care of the young, and in plants, seeds are provided with minimal stored food.
With characteristics typical of a population maintained at carrying capacity hence the Kthese species allocate more energy to non-reproductive activities.
- Intraspecific competition
- Intraspecific Relations: Cooperation and Competition
Typically they exhibit delayed reproduction later in life with slower development and a longer life span. There is repeated reproduction with only a few offspring produced each time.
Intraspecific Relations: Cooperation and Competition
In animals, there is often parental care of the young, and in plants, seeds are produced with much stored food. Social and Colonial Animals note queen in upper left with red spot on thorax Dr. Wilson is one of the main people doing research on colonial animals. Colonial living has advantages and disadvantages. It is a possible source of heightened competition if resources are limited. Typically a worker in a colonial species is sterile and not able to pass along her own genes.
The queen typically exerts chemical control over the colony via her pheromones, including suppression of reproduction in others. There are many examples of social, non-colonial or gregarious animals. Examples include a male with a harem in deer and a group pack, herd, pride of related individuals in wolves, chickens, lions, gorillas, and chimps.
Wolves in a pack usually maintain the dominance order by threats, stares, and other ritualized behaviors rather than fighting, because hurting each other weakens the strength of the whole pack.