All companies look to universities for the training and expertise of their future workforce. Yet, many companies have discovered that. The Vitamin D Council takes an in-depth look at the relationship between vitamin D and its cofactor, vitamin K. Twenty-eight freshly extracted human teeth were hand instrumented to clinical standards. Distilled water was used as the irrigant during instrumentation of all.
Oxpeckers And Zebras One example of mutualism is the relationship between zebras or and very small birds called African oxpeckers. The zebras have two sources of food for the oxpeckers: However, the blood loss from oxpeckers is relatively small. Oxpeckers act as a pest control but also make a hissing sound whenever they're frightened.
This makes them an alarm system for the zebras, so they can move to a safer area whenever the oxpeckers see a nearby predator. The oxpecker also has this relationship with the rhinoceros. Sea Anemones Sea anemones have mutualistic relationships with other species in the ocean floor. They can be found on the backs of hermit crabs, and both fend off predators.
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Anemones repel octopuses trying to eat the crabs and the crabs repulse starfish preying on anemones. Clownfish also have a mutualistic relationship with sea anemones.
The anemones repel clownfish predators by stinging them with their tentacles. A protective layer on the clownfish's skin protects them from the sting. At the same time, clownfish scare off butterfly fish that try to eat the anemones.
Sciencing Video Vault Fungi Fungi have a mutualistic relationship with several insect species in forested habitats. Beetles and ants "farm" fungi: They then use the fungi for food.
The Synergistic Relationship Between University and Industry: A Case Study
Health outcomes that may benefit from both vitamin D and vitamin K Hypertension A longitudinal study published in September, assessed the vitamin D levels and uncarboxylated matrix Gla-protein levels MGP of men and women between the ages of who were free of cardiovascular disease and hypertension. Thus, a high level of uncarboxylated MGP represents a low level of vitamin K.
Over this time, approximately half of the cohort developed hypertension. The researchers determined that both low vitamin D and high uncarboxylated MGP levels were associated with an increased risk for developing hypertension HR: The risk of developing hypertension was much more profound with both low vitamin D and high uncarboxylated MGP levels compared to the risk with solely low vitamin D levels or solely high uncarboxylated MGP levels HR 1.
Hip Fractures Since both vitamin D and vitamin K play a role in bone mineralization, researchers conducted a study to see if low vitamin K1 and vitamin D levels were associated with an increased risk of hip fracture among the elderly population in Oslo, Norway. The study concluded that low vitamin K1 and vitamin D levels are independently and synergistically associated with an increased risk of hip fractures after adjusting for confounding factors.
The synergistic relationship between vitamin D and vitamin K
The researchers discovered that vitamin K supplementation in conjunction to vitamin D supplementation reduced the progression of atherosclerosis in patients with chronic kidney disease CKD significantly more so than supplementing with vitamin D alone.
Free radicals inflict damage to DNA; whereas antioxidants protect against free radicals. A randomized controlled trial published in July assessed the effects of vitamin D, vitamin K and calcium co supplementation among 60 vitamin D deficient women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome PCOSa common condition in which a woman experiences hormonal imbalances. However, the improvement of oxidative stress and anti-oxidant levels warrants further research.
What can you do? Thus, it is important to take the proper steps to ensure that you are maintaining healthy levels of both vitamin K and vitamin D. Unlike most vitamins and minerals, vitamin D cannot be found in adequate amounts from dietary sources.
We must rely on either safe, sensible sun exposure or supplementation on a daily basis to ensure vitamin D sufficiency.
On the other hand, vitamin K can be found in the following foods: Adequate Intakes for Vitamin K6 Therefore, while reviewing the foods that contain vitamin K and the amount that you need, you can approximate whether you receive adequate vitamin K from your diet.