Biological interaction - Wikipedia
Positive Associations. 1. Predator-Prey Relationships. Predation is a biological interaction whereby one organism (predator) hunts and feeds on another. Commensalism: Commensalism, in biology, a relationship between two species The commensal—the species that benefits from the association—may obtain. Module: 01 Animal Association and Host-parasite interaction, Part I . many examples of non-symbiotic obligate mutualism relationship exist in nature.
Three important types are pollination, cleaning symbiosis, and zoochory. In pollinationa plant trades food resources in the form of nectar or pollen for the service of pollen dispersal. Phagophiles feed resource on ectoparasitesthereby providing anti-pest service, as in cleaning symbiosis.
Elacatinus and Gobiosomagenera of gobiesalso feed on ectoparasites of their clients while cleaning them. This is similar to pollination in that the plant produces food resources for example, fleshy fruit, overabundance of seeds for animals that disperse the seeds service.
Another type is ant protection of aphidswhere the aphids trade sugar -rich honeydew a by-product of their mode of feeding on plant sap in return for defense against predators such as ladybugs. Service-service relationships[ edit ] Ocellaris clownfish and Ritter's sea anemones is a mutual service-service symbiosis, the fish driving off butterflyfish and the anemone's tentacles protecting the fish from predators.
Strict service-service interactions are very rare, for reasons that are far from clear. However, in common with many mutualisms, there is more than one aspect to it: A second example is that of the relationship between some ants in the genus Pseudomyrmex and trees in the genus Acaciasuch as the whistling thorn and bullhorn acacia. The ants nest inside the plant's thorns.
In exchange for shelter, the ants protect acacias from attack by herbivores which they frequently eat, introducing a resource component to this service-service relationship and competition from other plants by trimming back vegetation that would shade the acacia.
In addition, another service-resource component is present, as the ants regularly feed on lipid -rich food-bodies called Beltian bodies that are on the Acacia plant. Plants in the vicinity that belong to other species are killed with formic acid.
Organisms may form very close associations or relationships with one another for many reasons. These associations may be between organisms of different species interspeciflc associations or between individuals of the same species intraspecific associations. It is a close, long lasting, physical relationship between two different species of organisms. The two species are usually in physical contact and at least one of them derive some sort of benefit from this contact.
There are three different categories of symbiotic relationships: For example, the Remora fish uses a sucker on its head to cling to the belly of the shark. In commensalism, it is only the commensal who benefits but the host neither benefits nor loses. Mutualism Some symbiotic relationships are actually beneficial to both species involved.
This kind of relationship is called mutualism. In many mutualistic relationships, the assoc1ation lS obligatory. Flowers of the yucca plant are Pollinated by a specific insect known as the yucca moth.
The moth in turn, lays it eggs in the flower, where the immature moth larvae feed on the developing seeds, the yucca is dependent on the moth for pollination and the moth is dependent on the seeds as a source of food for its larvae.
Other examples include the associations between the nitrogen fixing bacteria receives shelter and nutrients from the roots and it 'in turn provides the plant with nitrogen containing molecules that the plant can use for growth.
Mutualism is therefore a close association between two organisms of different species in which both organisms benefit. Parasitism A parasite derives its nourishment from the host and so the relation is to the detriment of the host. Ectoparasites, plasmodium attack the red blood cells and cause a characteristic disease.
Tapeworm is another example of parasite in man. Can you mention any parasite and its host in your environment.
Mutualism (biology) - Wikipedia
The parasite causes a great harm to the host as it derives nourishment. Saprophytes obtain nourishment by releasing digestive enzymes into dead tissues and absorb the resulting substances. They act as decomposers, thereby helping in the recycling of essential nutrients.