Montezuma and quetzalcoatl their relationship to cortes

Cortes vs. Montezuma by Riley Brunk on Prezi

The Spanish claimed Montezuma died at the hands of his own people; the View Biographies Related To categories the Aztecs thought Cortés was a god but whether the legend of Quetzalcóatl was really a part of the Aztecs' belief system. In an attempt to get the Aztecs under control, Montezuma was said to To an isolated group of individuals this man was the god Quetzalcoatl. Quetzalcoatl is a deity in Mesoamerican culture and literature .. has been widely held that the Aztec Emperor Moctezuma II who argue that the Quetzalcoatl-Cortés connection is not.

On the southeastern coast he founded Veracruz, where he dismissed the authority of Velasquez and declared himself under orders from King Charles I of Spain. He disciplined his men and trained them to act as a cohesive unit of soldiers.


He also burned his ships to make retreat impossible. Book illustration by J. The Aztec god Quetzalcoatl, whom they credited with the creation of humans among other notable feats, was set to return to Earth. Montezuma sent out envoys to meet the conquistador as he neared.

The Aztecs were fascinated by the Spaniards' light skin and the sight of men on horseback, which they described as beasts with two heads and six legs. The Spanish fired shots, which stunned the natives and further intimidated them. The Spanish army had help in sacking the city. The Aztecs were in the midst of a full rebellion.

That soldier died during the Aztec rebellion, and when his body was looted, an Aztec caught the disease, which spread like wildfire because the Aztec people had no immunity to it. They found that the city's society had crumpled.


The Aztecs no longer trusted Montezuma, they were short on food, and the smallpox epidemic was under way. It is uncertain how Montezuma died. Some scholars state that, disgusted with him, the Aztecs stoned him to death. Others, including indigenous scholars, assert that the Spanish killed him. It quickly became a pre-eminent city in the Spanish colonies and many Europeans came to live there. Later years InGov. He stayed for two years, and when he returned to Mexico he found himself removed from power.

Quetzalcoatl - Wikipedia

On the basis of the different symbolic systems used in portrayals of the feathered serpent deity in different cultures and periods, scholars have interpreted the religious and symbolic meaning of the feathered serpent deity in Mesoamerican cultures. Iconographic depictions[ edit ] Feathered Serpent head at the Ciudadela complex in Teotihuacan The earliest iconographic depiction of the deity is believed to be found on Stela 19 at the Olmec site of La Ventadepicting a serpent rising up behind a person probably engaged in a shamanic ritual.

This depiction is believed to have been made around BC. Although probably not exactly a depiction of the same feathered serpent deity worshipped in classic and post-classic periods, it shows the continuity of symbolism of feathered snakes in Mesoamerica from the formative period and on, for example in comparison to the Mayan Vision Serpent shown below.

Vision Serpent depicted on lintel 15 from Yaxchilan. The first culture to use the symbol of a feathered serpent as an important religious and political symbol was Teotihuacan. At temples such as the aptly named "Quetzalcoatl temple" in the Ciudadela complex, feathered serpents figure prominently and alternate with a different kind of serpent head. The earliest depictions of the feathered serpent deity were fully zoomorphic, depicting the serpent as an actual snake, but already among the Classic Maya, the deity began acquiring human features.

In the iconography of the classic period, Maya serpent imagery is also prevalent: The archaeological record shows that after the fall of Teotihuacan that marked the beginning of the epi-classic period in Mesoamerican chronology around AD, the cult of the feathered serpent spread to the new religious and political centers in central Mexico, centers such as XochicalcoCacaxtla and Cholula.

Colonial documentary sources from the Maya area frequently speak of the arrival of foreigners from the central Mexican plateau, often led by a man whose name translates as "Feathered Serpent. Quetzalcoatl; yn ehecatl ynteiacancauh yntlachpancauh in tlaloque, yn aoaque, yn qujqujiauhti.

Auh yn jquac molhuja eheca, mjtoa: Quetzalcoatl—he was the wind, the guide and road sweeper of the rain gods, of the masters of the water, of those who brought rain. And when the wind rose, when the dust rumbled, and it crack and there was a great din, became it became dark and the wind blew in many directions, and it thundered; then it was said: Cult worship may have involved the ingestion of hallucinogenic mushrooms psilocybesconsidered sacred.

In Aztec culture, depictions of Quetzalcoatl were fully anthropomorphic. Quetzalcoatl was associated with the wind god Ehecatl and is often depicted with his insignia: Interpretations[ edit ] Temple of the Feathered Serpent at Xochicalcoadorned with a fully zoomorphic feathered Serpent. On the basis of the Teotihuacan iconographical depictions of the feathered serpent, archaeologist Karl Taube has argued that the feathered serpent was a symbol of fertility and internal political structures contrasting with the War Serpent symbolizing the outwards military expansion of the Teotihuacan empire.

The feathered serpent was furthermore connected to the planet Venus because of this planet's importance as a sign of the beginning of the rainy season.

To both Teotihuacan and Mayan culturesVenus was in turn also symbolically connected with warfare. In the example from Yaxchilan, the Vision Serpent has the human face of the young maize god, further suggesting a connection to fertility and vegetational renewal; the Mayan Young Maize god was also connected to Venus.


In Xochicalco, depictions of the feathered serpent are accompanied by the image of a seated, armed ruler and the hieroglyph for the day sign 9 Wind. The date 9 Wind is known to be associated with fertility, Venus and war among the Maya and frequently occurs in relation to Quetzalcoatl in other Mesoamerican cultures.

To the Aztecs, Quetzalcoatl was, as his name indicates, a feathered serpent, a flying reptile much like a dragonwho was a boundary-maker and transgressor between earth and sky.

He was a creator deity having contributed essentially to the creation of Mankind. He also had anthropomorphic forms, for example in his aspects as Ehecatl the wind god. Among the Aztecs, the name Quetzalcoatl was also a priestly title, as the two most important priests of the Aztec Templo Mayor were called "Quetzalcoatl Tlamacazqui". In the Aztec ritual calendar, different deities were associated with the cycle-of-year names: Quetzalcoatl was tied to the year Ce Acatl One Reedwhich correlates to the year

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