Piaget’s theory child language and thought, by Vygotsky – Blog da Psicologia da Educação
Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky was a Soviet psychologist, the founder of an unfinished Marxist A Review of General Psychology study, published in , ranked Vygotsky Lev Vygotsky was born to the Vygodskii family in the town of Orsha, Belarus . concerns the inter-relationship of language development and thought. Lev Semonovich Vygotsky was born on the 5th of November in a small The life of a Jew in Russia was limited in terms of places to live, study and work. Vygotsky died while dictating the final chapter of his book 'Thought and language'. structure, the way of functioning and the relation to other mental functions. Lev Vygotsky was born was born in Orsha, Belarus (then Russian empire), into a Vygotsky continued his self-directed studies in philosophy. . made concerns the inter-relationship of language development and thought.
Concomitantly, we subjected to critical analysis the leading theories of thought and language in the hope of overcoming their insufficiencies and avoiding their pitfalls in our own search for the theoretical path to follow.
Inevitably, our analysis encroached on some neighboring fields, such as linguistics and the psychology of education. In discussing the development of scientific concepts in childhood, we made use of the working hypothesis concerning the relation between the educational process and mental development, which we had evolved elsewhere using a different body of data.
The structure of this book is perforce complex and multifaceted, yet all its parts are oriented toward a central task, the genetic analysis of the relationship between thought and the spoken word.
Chapter 1 poses the problem and discusses the method. Chapter 4 attempts to trace the genetic roots of thought and language; it serves as a theoretical introduction to the main part of the book, the two experimental investigations described in the next two chapters. Government sponsored schools did not accept Jewish teachers. Vygotsky therefore enrolled in medicine as this profession allowed Jews to practise outside 'the pale' of Jewish settlements. Vygotsky was luck enough to gain a place from the ballot.
When he decided medicine was not for him, he transferred to Law, which offered the same freedom's. Vygotsky simultaneously enrolled in a Jewish public university, to study philosophy and history.
Piaget’s theory child language and thought, by Vygotsky
The qualifications gained at the Shavyavsky Public University were not recognised, and degrees could not be awarded. Vygotsky graduated from Moscow University with a law degree inthe year of the Russian revolution, and then returned to Gomel. The town experienced the extreme results of civil war and famine. Moscow University In Vygotsky experienced the first of a number of attacks of tuberculosis and was worried that he would not survive.Vygotsky
He collected his literary works together to deliver to his mentor - Yuli Aichenwald, in case of his death from this attack. Aichenwald was exiled from Russia in Vygotsky became preoccupied with the theme of death. His choice of topic was considered bold, due to his youthful age and his relative inexpereience among the academics who were present.
Lev Vygotsky - Wikipedia
A detailed timeline of Vygotsky's life is available here. Vygotsky was a prolific writer and he had created, with the collaboration of Alexander Luria and Alexi N Leont'ev, a completely new Marxist based approach to psychology which emphasises the improtance of social interaction in human development.
Vygotsky's approach did not become known in the West untiland was not published there until Both of these men carried on with this work until their deaths. Vygotsky completed scientific articles, numerous lectures and 10 books based on a wide range of Marxist based psychological and teaching theories as well as the areas of pedagogy the science of teachingart and aesthetics and sociology, before dying of tuberculosis in Juneat the age of Vygotsky died while dictating the final chapter of his book 'Thought and language'.
Theories Vygotsky's new approach to psychology can be traced to both his socio-cultural context and his genius like skills of observation and knowledge intergration, supported by a photographic memory.
The prevailing duality is reflected in the incongruity between these theoretical structures, with their metaphysical, idealistic overtones, and the empiric bases on which they are erected.
In modern psychology great discoveries are made daily, only to be shrouded in ad hoc theories, prescientific and semi-metaphysical. Piaget tries to escape this fatal duality by sticking to facts. He deliberately avoids generalizing even in his own field and is especially careful not to step over into the related realms of logic, of the theory of cognition, or of the history of philosophy.
Pure empiricism seems to him the only safe ground. His book, he writes, is first and foremost a collection of facts and documents. The bonds uniting the various chapters are those that a single method can give to diverse findings — by no means those of systematic exposition [Language and Thought in the Child p.
An avalanche of facts, great and small, opening up new vistas or adding to previous knowledge, tumbles down on child psychology from the pages of Piaget. His clinical method proves a truly invaluable tool for studying the complex structural wholes of child thought in its evolutional transformations. It unifies his diverse investigations and gives us coherent, detailed, real-life pictures of child thinking. The new facts and the new method led to many problems, some entirely new to scientific psychology, others appearing in a new light.
But facts are always examined in the light of some theory and therefore cannot be disentangled from philosophy. This is especially true of facts relative to thinking. Piaget approaches this task by raising the question of the objective interrelatedness of all the characteristic traits of child thinking he observed.
Are these traits fortuitous and independent, or do they form an orderly whole, with a logic of its own, around some central, unifying fact? Piaget believes that they do. In answering the question, he passes from facts to theory, and incidentally shows how much his analysis of facts was influenced by theory, even though in his presentation the theory follows the findings.
To this core trait he relates all the other traits he found, such as intellectual realism, syncretism, and difficulty in understanding relations. He describes egocentrism as occupying an intermediate position, genetically, structurally, and functionally, between autistic and directed thought. The idea of the polarity of directed and undirected thought is borrowed from psychoanalytical theory. Directed thought is conscious, i. It is intelligent, i. It is susceptible of truth and of error … and it can be communicated through language.
Autistic thought is subconscious, i. It is not adapted to external reality but creates for itself a reality of imagination or dreams. It tends, not to establish truths, but to gratify wishes and remains strictly individual and incommunicable as such by means of language, since it operates primarily in images and must, in order to be communicated, resort to roundabout methods, evoking, by means of symbols and of myths, the feelings that guide it [Language and Thought in the Child, pp.
Directed thought is social. As it develops, it is increasingly influenced by the laws of experience and of logic proper.
Autistic thought, on the contrary, is individualistic and obeys a set of special laws of its own. Between these two contrasting modes of thought there are many varieties in regard to their degree of communicability. These intermediate varieties must obey a special logic, intermediate too between the logic of autism and the logic of intelligence.
We propose to give the name of egocentric thought to the principal of these intermediate forms [Language and Thought in the Child, p. While its main function is still the satisfaction of personal needs, it already includes some mental adaptation, some of the reality orientation typical of the thought of adults. It is important to note that throughout his work Piaget stresses the traits that egocentric thought has in common with autism rather than the traits that divide them.
In the summary at the end of his book, he states emphatically: The same tendency is especially pronounced in his treatment of syncretism, even though he notes that the mechanism of syncretic thinking represents a transition from the logic of dreams to the logic of thought.
Piaget holds that egocentrism stands between extreme autism and the logic of reason chronologically as well as structurally and functionally. His conception of the development of thought is based on the premise taken from psychoanalysis that child thought is originally and naturally autistic and changes to realistic thought only under long and sustained social pressure, this does not, Piaget points out, devaluate the intelligence of the child.
Imagination is important for finding solutions to problems, but it does not take care of verification and proof, which the search for truth presupposes. The need to verify our thought — that is, the need for logical activity — arises late. This lag is to be expected, says Piaget, since thought begins to serve immediate satisfaction much earlier than to seek for truth; the most spontaneous form of thinking is play, or wishful imaginings that make the desired seem obtainable.
Up to the age of seven or eight, play dominates in child thought to such an extent that it is very hard to tell deliberate invention from fantasy that the child believes to be the truth. To sum up, autism is seen as the original, earliest form of thought; logic appears relatively late; and egocentric thought is the genetic link between them.
This conception, though never presented by Piaget in a coherent, systematic fashion, is the cornerstone of his whole theoretical edifice. True, he states more than once that the assumption of the intermediate nature of child thought is hypothetical, but he also says that this hypothesis is so close to common sense that it seems little more debatable to him than the fact itself of child egocentrism.
He traces egocentrism to the nature of the practical activity of the child and to the late development of social attitudes. The social instinct in well-defined form develops late.
The first critical period in this respect occurs toward the age of 7 or 8 [Judgment and Reason in the Child, p. Before this age, Piaget tends to see egocentrism as all-pervading. All the phenomena of child logic in their rich variety he considers directly or indirectly egocentric.
After seven or eight, when socialized thinking begins to take shape, the egocentric features do not suddenly vanish.
Lev Vygotsky - New World Encyclopedia
The influences to which adults subject the child are not imprinted on him as on a photographic plate: It is this psychological substance of the child or, in other words, the structure and the functioning peculiar to child thought that we have endeavored to describe and, in a measure, to explain [Judgment and Reason in the Child, p. We shall then test these facts by comparing them with the results of our own experiments.
His systematic observations led him to conclude that all conversations of children fall into two groups, the egocentric and the socialized. The difference between them lies mainly in their functions.